Flow cytometry is an invaluable tool that can identify the presence of abnormal cell populations and aide in confirming the diagnosis of lymphocytic malignancies. Additionally, various types of lymphomas can be classified by the surface antigens expressed on the cells. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping demonstrates the immunologic features of the cells which classify the tumor. By correlating the results with clinical symptoms and other diagnostic findings, the physician can diagnose and treat the patient with the appropriate chemotherapy regimen.
The use of flow cytometry is essential in diagnosing lymphoid malignancies and can determine whether a clonal proliferation is B or T- cell in origin. Flow cytometry indentifies and quantitates cellular antigens with flurochrome-labeled monoclonal antibodies. This process is called immunophenotyping.
Researchers have demonstrated that any mature adult cell has the potential to turn into the equivalent of an embryonic stem cell. “It may not be necessary to create an embryo to acquire embryonic stem cells," explained senior author Charles Vacanti, who is the Vandam/Covino Professor of Anaesthesia at Harvard Medical School.
Now, researchers from Harvard University-affiliated Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH), in collaboration with the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology
in Japan, have demonstrated that any mature adult cell (a “somatic”
cell) has the potential to turn into the equivalent of an embryonic stem
cell. In an article to be published in the Jan. 30 issue of Nature,
researchers demonstrate, in a preclinical model, a novel and unique way
that cells can be reprogrammed, a phenomenon they call
stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP). Importantly, this
process does not require the introduction of new outside DNA, the
process commonly used to induce adult cells back into a state of
Radioactive DNA polymerase activity methods are cumbersome and do not provide initial extension rates. A simple extension rate assay would enable study of basic assumptions about PCR and define the limits of rapid PCR.
Simple DNA extension rate assays can be performed on real-time PCR instruments. Activity is decreased by monovalent cations, DNA dyes, and most melting temperature depressors. Rational inclusion of PCR components on the basis of their
effects on polymerase extension is likely to be useful in PCR, particularly rapid-cycle or fast PCR.
In healthy people, glucose is absorbed from the blood for use by various tissues. But the cells of people with type-2 diabetes are resistant to insulin, which is produced by the pancreas and is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. These individuals have higher-than-normal blood glucose levels. People with prediabetes have blood glucose levels somewhere between normal and diabetic.
Blood glucose can be directly tested in several ways, but these tests only provide a snapshot. To get a picture of blood glucose levels over time, doctors test for levels of glycated hemoglobin, or A1c, in the blood. When blood glucose levels are high, more A1c is formed. So A1c serves as a biomarker, indicating average blood glucose levels over a two- to three-month period.
From the popular histology plate collection comes a new histological fashion line of silk scarves and handkerchiefs! The 100% silk scarves feature images of histological human tissues stained and examined using light microscopy. Created by medical artist Emily Evans.