Art and Science of Laboratory Medicine

Art and Science of Laboratory Medicine

Thursday, April 30, 2015

Serratia marcescens

Serratia marcescens is a member of the genus Serratia, which is a part of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Currently 14 species ofSerratia are recognized within the genus, eight of which are associated with human infection. Of the eight species implicated in clinical infection S. marcescens, S. liquefaciens and S. odorifera are best known. Of all Serratia species, S. marcescens is the most common clinical isolate and the most important human pathogen.

S. marcescens is credited with a long fanatical history dating back to antiquity, when, because of its ability to produce a red pigment it was described as having ‘masqueraded’ as blood . Early in this century, this distinctive red pigmentation of S. marcescens, combined with an apparent low level of virulence, led to its use as a biological marker of infection. Consequently, S. marcescens was used in a number of classic bacterial transmission experiments, which led to improved understanding of the epidemiology of infection. Under more controversial settings, S. marcescens was also used by the US military in a series of biological warfare test experiments conducted on the general population . From 1960 onwards, however, non-pigmented isolates of S. marcescenspredominated over pigmented strains in the clinical setting and were increasingly implicated in healthcare-associated infection particularly among compromised patients.

Read more:
Serratia marcescens - Infectious Disease and Antimicrobial Agents

Source: antimicrobe
Image credits: Abeer Abdel-fattah

Lab Life

"The more often we see the beautiful little things we use routinely in the lab, the less and less we seem to ‘see’ them. Maybe we should all take a moment to salute the ‘trivial’ things in life that we have taken for granted."

Read more:
Lab life

Source: Noimpactscience

Americas region is declared the world’s first to eliminate rubella

The Americas region has become the first in the world to be declared free of endemic transmission of rubella, a contagious viral disease that can cause multiple birth defects as well as fetal death when contracted by women during pregnancy.

This achievement culminates a 15-year effort that involved widespread administration of the vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) throughout the Western Hemisphere. The announcement comes as 45 countries and territories of the Americas are participating in the 13th annual Vaccination Week in the Americas (April 25 to May 2).

Read more:
Americas region is declared the world’s first to eliminate rubella

Source: WHO

Researchers closer to being able to change blood types

What do you do when a patient needs a blood transfusion but you don’t have their blood type in the blood bank? It’s a problem that scientists have been trying to solve for years but haven’t been able to find an economic solution – until now.

University of British Columbia chemists and scientists in the Centre for Blood Research have created an enzyme that could potentially solve this problem. The enzyme works by snipping off the sugars, also known as antigens, found in Type A and Type B blood, making it more like Type O. Type O blood is known as the universal donor and can be given to patients of all blood types.

Read more:
Researchers closer to being able to change blood types

Source: University of British Columbia

Wednesday, April 29, 2015

Woman with Hypomagnesemia and Hypocalcemia

CASE: A 71-year-old woman was referred to the endocrinology clinic after several years of unresolved hypomagnesemia that required numerous hospital admissions to receive intravenous magnesium. She previously presented with palpitations on 3 occasions, and once with diarrhea and vomiting. The blood tests on all 4 presentations demonstrated severe hypomagnesemia. Her medical history included type 2 diabetes mellitus and hiatal hernia. Her regular medications included simvastatin, esomeprazole, verapamil, pioglitazone, gliclazide, metformin, and calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D supplementation. Clinical examination in the endocrinology clinic was unremarkable, and no abnormality was demonstrated on electrocardiogram. An echocardiogram was normal.

Read more:

Woman with Hypomagnesemia and Hypocalcemia

 Source: Clinical Chemistry

Tuesday, April 28, 2015

I Love My Liver

A wonderful visual world of histopathology

Read more:
Liver Lover

Source: I-Heart-Histo

HIV home test kit

An early diagnosis allows people to get treatment quickly and can prevent serious complications. And individuals successfully treated for HIV are less likely to pass the infection on. This new "do-it-yourself" test is made by company Bio Sure UK and can be bought online.

It works in a similar way to a pregnancy test, measuring levels of antibodies - proteins made in response to the virus - in a person's blood. The device analyses a small droplet of blood, taken from the finger-tip using a lancet. Two purple lines appear if it is positive. The company recommends attending sexual health clinics for advice and further blood tests if both lines appear.

Read more:
HIV home test kit goes on sale in UK

Source: BBC

Sunday, April 26, 2015

Molecular Link between Lipid Metabolism and Energy Homeostasis

New genes predisposing to low HDL-cholesterol level were searched using genome-wide association analysis in Finnish individuals with extremely low or high HDL-cholesterol. Several new genes predisposing to low HDL-cholesterol were discovered, of which many were known to be associated with immune system and inflammatory reaction of the body, but their role in cholesterol metabolism has not previously been characterized. Some of the subjects appeared to be genetically more prone to inflammation than others, especially in the blood and adipose tissue. The more inflammation inducing genetic variants one had, the stronger was the inflammatory state of the body, especially in blood and adipose tissue, and the lower the HDL-cholesterol level. The inflammation may block the transport of cholesterol from vessel walls to circulation leading to lower HDL-cholesterol levels in the circulation.

Read more:
Molecular Link between Lipid Metabolism and Energy Homeostasis

 Source: University of Helsinki

Tree of life

This elegant piece combines the double helix of DNA and the tree of life into an artistic pendant sure to be a conversation starter. If you love science, this delicate oval shaped piece should be in your collection. 

Read more:
Tree of life with a DNA trunk necklace Sterling silver by Delftia

 Source: Delftia via Etsy

Thursday, April 23, 2015

Wednesday, April 22, 2015

BRCA Breakthroughs?

Silicon Valley-based Color Genomics will offer genetic screening of saliva samples for BRCA mutations associated with elevated breast and ovarian cancer risk for $249, a fraction of the current price, the firm announced this week (April 20). Separately, the French medical research institution Inserm and Quest Diagnostics today (April 21) introduced BRCA Share, a private-public partnership to collect data on BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations to determine the impact of uncharacterized mutations on cancer risk.

Read more:
BRCA Breakthroughs? 

Source: The Scientist Magazine

Tuesday, April 21, 2015

Laboratory Professional of the Year 2015

Jennifer Dawson, MHA, DLM(ASCP)SLS, QIHC,
Director of Quality, Sonic Reference Laboratory 

Well-rounded clinical laboratory administrator with solid experience in laboratory accreditation, regulatory affairs, quality management, process improvement, safety, operations and human resources. A change agent that thrives in start up environments. CAP, CLIA and ISO 15189 subject matter expert.

Read more:
Meet the Winners

Source: Advance

True Friends of A Laboratory Scientist

True friends are like urinary epithelial cells that resemble in different form and usually seen as: Few, moderate and many.

Happy Labweek Friends!

Source: Facebook by Byron Lester Aquino

Something positive in gram stain

Candida albicans yeast and pseudo hyphae in gram stain preparation under 100x microscopy in a female patient aged 48 who is under catherisatiion.

Read more:
Gram stain showing gram positive Candida albicans

 Source: Microbeworld

Monday, April 20, 2015


You can recognize fast food lover from his blood film

Image: Marcelocyte by Marce Sc

Sunday, April 19, 2015

Medical Laboratory Scientists - Heroes Behind The Scenes

Happy Labweek 2015 scientists!

Lab Week Style - Histology Nails

The final day of United in Pink is joining forces with Nail Art Sunday making the theme Breasts!

"I couldn't see myself doing any literal interpretation of this theme so instead I looked closer. Much closer. On a microscopic level things look very different and often times very interesting and colourful."

Read more:
May contain traces of polish: Histology nails

Source: May contain traces of polish

Interferences from blood collection tube components on clinical chemistry assays

Improper design or use of blood collection devices can adversely affect the accuracy of laboratory test results. Vascular access devices, such as catheters and needles, exert shear forces during blood flow, which creates a predisposition to cell lysis. Components from blood collection tubes, such as stoppers, lubricants, surfactants, and separator gels, can leach into specimens and/or adsorb analytes from a specimen; special tube additives may also alter analyte stability. Because of these interactions with blood specimens, blood collection devices are a potential source of pre-analytical error in laboratory testing. Accurate laboratory testing requires an understanding of the complex interactions between collection devices and blood specimens. Manufacturers, vendors, and clinical laboratorians must consider the pre-analytical challenges in laboratory testing. Although other authors have described the effects of endogenous substances on clinical assay results, the effects/impact of blood collection tube additives and components have not been well systematically described or explained. This review aims to identify and describe blood collection tube additives and their components and the strategies used to minimize their effects on clinical chemistry assays.

Read more:
Interferences from blood collection tube components on clinical chemistry assays

Source: Biochemia Medica

Image credits:

Pathology Butterflies

Spring comes to pathology laboratory

Source: Facebook by Silvia Happy Hopsasa

Saturday, April 18, 2015

Synovial Fluid Analyses, Synovial Biopsy and Synovial Pathology

Analysis of synovial fluid and synovial tissue obtained from diseased joints provides important diagnostic information in specific clinical settings, and is valuable in addressing a spectrum of research questions aimed at enhancing our understanding of the pathogenesis and mechanisms of rheumatic diseases. Many peripheral joints are readily accessible to sampling of both synovial fluid effusions and synovial tissue, although the knee is the most frequently sampled joint. The techniques used to obtain and analyze synovial fluid and tissue samples are discussed in this article.

Read more:
Synovial Fluid Analyses, Synovial Biopsy, and Synovial Pathology - Kelley-Synovial Fluid Analyses, Synovial Biopsy, and Synovial Pathology.pdf

 Source: Standford edu

Bacterium - Paper Cut Art

Artist Rogan Brown recently completed work on this new cut paper sculpture titled Cut Microbe. Four months in the making, the piece is a continuation of Brown’s exploration of the human biome and was inspired by the form of salmonella and ecoli bacteria (this 44″ sculpture is about half a million times bigger than the real thing). The sculpture will be on view this May as part of a commission by the Eden Project in the UK.

Read more:
A Sprawling New CutPaper Bacterium

Source: Rogan Brown via Colossal

Pseudomonas earrings

These smiling pseudomonas bacteria earrings are a dark teal color, are speckled with slight white "fuzz", and have been coated in a shiny varnish. They each have a wire flagella, curled in at the end for safety. Both are attached to nickle-free fishhook earrings. These would make a great gift for a special someone working in the science and medical fields, someone interested in science, or someone looking for unique, eccentric jewelry pieces. Because these earrings are hand-sculpted, they should still be worn, handled, and treated with care.

Read more:
Dark Teal Pseudomonas Bacteria Polymer Clay

Source: Etsy by ChocolateMenagerie

Reference Intervals and RCV

For the laboratory medicine, it's critical to understand difference between Reference Interval (RI) and Biological variation (BV). Westgard is pleased to have a guest essay where the most commonly-asked-questions about both topics are answered.

The reference intervals as well as the components of biological variation can together play an important role in medical laboratory to notify doctors about changes in patient status. Therefore, in our opinion the future laboratory information system should not only concerned on the significant changes of patient result compared to the reference interval but also to utilise different indices of biological variation so it can compare the current test result with the previous one (expressed as RCV value).

Read more:
Frequently-Asked-Questions on Reference Intervals and Biological Variation

Source: Westgard

Friday, April 17, 2015

Procalcitonin or C-reactive protein as infection markers

Although the clinical application of procalcitonin (PCT) as an infection marker in patients with impaired renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2) has been increasing recently, it is unclear whether PCT is more accurate than C-reactive protein (CRP). We investigated the clinical value of CRP and PCT based on renal function.
From November 2008 to July 2011, a total of 493 patients who simultaneously underwent CRP and PCT tests were enrolled. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and characteristics of both markers were analyzed according to infection severity and renal function.
In patients with impaired renal function, the area under the ROC curve was 0.876 for CRP and 0.876 for PCT. In patients with infection, CRP levels differed depending on whether the infection was localized, septic, or severely septic, whereas PCT levels were higher in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. In patients without infection, CRP did not correlate with eGFR, while PCT was negatively correlated with eGFR.
This study demonstrates that CRP is accurate for predicting infection in patients with impaired renal function. The study suggests that in spite of its higher cost, PCT is not superior to CRP as an infection marker interms of diagnostic value

Read more:
Clinical relevance of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as infection markers

Source: Critical Care

Bloody Mary - The Lab Week Cocktail

Happy Lab Week 19 - 25 April, 2015 - Get Results Colleagues!

Source: Medical Laboratory and Biomedical Science

Can healthy people benefit from health apps?

A health app is a piece of smartphone software that purports to offer the user some health benefit. Many of these apps are aimed at people with diagnoses; for example, they teach the correct use of an asthma inhaler or collect blood pressure results by syncing wirelessly with a blood pressure monitor. But many are aimed at people with no diagnosis: for example, apps that allow users to track their calorie intake and exercise, or even their sleep patterns.

Some apps have the potential to encourage healthier habits and are accessible to most people, writes Iltifat Husain, but Des Spence notes the lack of any evidence of effectiveness and the potential for encouraging unnecessary anxiety.

Read more:
Can healthy people benefit from health apps?

Source: The BMJ

Thursday, April 16, 2015

Laboratory Beaker Wine Glass Set

After a long day sometimes you need a little self-medication. Prescribe yourself 200ccs of liquid relaxation with the Periodic Tableware Beaker Wine Glass. Repeat as necessary. A laboratory beaker cohered to a classic wine stem and base. Graduated to 200 ml, but can hold a heavy pour of 300.

Read more:
An Elegantly Designed Set of Stemmed Laboratory Beaker Wine Glasses

Source: Laughing Squid

Overview of Intestinal Protozoan Infections

The most important intestinal protozoan pathogens are Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia intestinalis (lamblia), Cystoisospora (Isospora) belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and members of the phylum Microsporidia. Multiple pathogenic parasites and nonpathogenic commensal organisms may be present in the intestine at the same time.

Intestinal protozoa are spread by the fecal-oral route, so infections are widespread in areas with inadequate sanitation and water treatment. They are also common in the US in settings where fecal incontinence and poor hygiene prevail, as occur in mental institutions and day care centers. Occasionally, large waterborne outbreaks of intestinal protozoan infection have occurred in the US (eg, the massive waterborne Cryptosporidium outbreak in Milwaukee in 1993). Some GI protozoa are spread sexually, especially with practices involving oral-anal contact, and several protozoan species cause severe opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS.

Read more:
Overview of Intestinal Protozoan Infections

Source: Merck Manual

Wednesday, April 15, 2015

Prolymphocytic leukemias

T- and B-cell subtypes of prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) are rare, aggressive lymphoid malignancies with characteristic morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular features. Recent studies have highlighted the role of specific oncogenes, such as TCL-1, MTCP-1, and ATM in the case of T-cell and TP53 mutations in the case of B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia. Despite the advances in the understanding of the biology of these conditions, the prognosis for these patients remains poor with short survival and no curative therapy. The advent of monoclonal antibodies has improved treatment options. Currently, the best treatment for T-PLL is intravenous alemtuzumab, which has resulted in very high response rates of more than 90% when given as first-line treatment and a significant improvement in survival. Consolidation of remissions with autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation further prolongs survival, and the latter may offer potential cure. In B-PLL, rituximab-based combination chemo-immunotherapy is effective in fitter patients. TP53 abnormalities are common and, as for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, these patients should be managed using an alemtuzumab-based therapy. The role of allogeneic transplant with nonmyeloablative conditioning needs to be explored further in both T- and B-cell PLL to broaden the patient eligibility for what may be a curative treatment.

Read more:
How I treat prolymphocytic leukemia

Source: Blood Journal

Smartphone-based POCT in cytology and histopathology

A smartphone-based device developed by Harvard Medical School investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital could bring rapid, accurate molecular diagnosis of cancer and other diseases to locations lacking the latest medical technology. The device uses technology for making holograms to collect detailed microscopic images for digital analysis of the molecular composition of cells and tissues.

The D3 (digital diffraction diagnosis) system features an imaging module with a battery-powered LED light clipped onto a standard smartphone. It records high-resolution imaging data with its camera. With a much larger field of view than traditional microscopy, the D3 system is capable of recording data on more than 100,000 cells from a blood or tissue sample in a single image. The data can then be transmitted for analysis to a remote graphic-processing server via a secure, encrypted cloud service. The results can be rapidly returned to the point of care for viewing.

Read more:
Smartphone-based device could provide rapid, low-cost molecular tumor diagnosis

Source: Kurzweil

Pain-free blood tests

Tasso Inc. is perfecting a device the size of a pingpong ball that extracts a small sample while held against the skin for two minutes. During this time, a slight vacuum in the device enables a small sample of blood to flow into an attached sample tube, which can be mailed or handed to a lab. Users report that the process is almost entirely painless.

Read more:
Simple sample: Federal grant advances pain-free blood tests

Source: University of Wisconsin-Madison

Tuesday, April 14, 2015

Free Webinar: Preanalytical Errors in Venous Blood Sampling

Venous blood sampling is the most common invasive procedure in healthcare. A recent investigation performed by the Working group for Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE) of the European Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) has shown that blood sampling in Europe is performed by different professions with significantly different levels of education, background, competence and skills.

Surprisingly, in some countries, even administrative staff is involved in venous blood sampling, with little if any education about the procedure and how it can affect the quality of the sample and patient results. Moreover, while guidelines for venous blood sampling are available (CLSI H3-A6), it has been shown that those guidelines are neither implemented worldwide, nor complied with adequately. Such low level of compliance clearly puts patients at risk. Any deviation from the recommended procedure can affect either the quality of the sample or patient well-being.

Register here:
Preanalytical Errors in Venous Blood Sampling


Morphine test printed on paper

VTT is the first in the world to have developed a drug test printed on paper. VTT used antibodies – produced by methods of molecular biology – as morphine sensing molecules when creating this printing technology-based morphine test. Using printing technology to manufacture rapid tests enables high production volumes and low production costs.

A paper-based test enables a rapid analysis of whether a compound – in this case, morphine – is present in a given sample. Possible future applications of the developed test include drug testing at workplaces and in connection with traffic control.

This method, developed by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, provides several advantages, such as high production volumes, low material costs and disposability as well as design freedom based on bendability and foldability of paper.

Read more:
VTT printed a morphine test on paper

Source: VTT

Sunday, April 12, 2015

DNA Origami

This picture shows a paper origami model of DNA, symbolising how we isolate DNA molecules in micro tubes to study these intriguing genetic processes.

Read more:
Winners of the University of Bristol’s Art of Science Competition

 Source: Telegraph

No-Blood Glucose Monitor Watch

This device uses non-invasive spectrometric process as well as electrical sampling that has been well published recently but advanced by our engineers to determine Sp02 levels and Glucose using low-cost wavelength specific transmitters and receptors. Systolic pressure is calculated by comparing an ECG waveform to the spectroscopic waveform using the Pulse Transit Time Method (PTT).

Infra V is also testing sensors for kidney function such as creatinine, urea and lactic acid levels for many other issues and also close monitoring for intensive physical training and EEG add-on.

Read more:
InfraV No-Blood, Glucose Vital Signs Monitor Watch

 Source: Indiegogo

Clinical Laboratory Cookie Collection

Cookies for International Biomedical Laboratory Science Day 15 April 2015 and Medical Laboratory Professionals Week19-15 April 2015.

Read more:
Clinical Laboratory Cookie Collection

 Source: Cookie Crazie

Sorry, we just can´t trust you

Ah, the error bar....

Read more:
To err....biologyze

Source: Biologyze

Sweet Science

Delicious candy DNA

Read more:
Candyanatomy  "Gluco-Genetics"

Source: Instagram via @candyanatomy
Image credits: Mike McCormick

Urinalysis in the clinical lab

Urinalysis is a valuable tool used to diagnose and monitor renal and urinary tract illnesses. Typically it is a moderate- to high-sample volume test for a general chemistry lab, representing up to 30% of all samples received. Routine urinalysis consists of macroscopic examination, chemical analysis, and microscopic urine sediment examination. Image summarizes each element and its potential clinical significance.

Read more:
Automated urinalysis in the clinical lab

Source: MLO

Saturday, April 11, 2015

Springtime in the lab

Once upon a time, I was a science student. Once upon a time, test tubes were standard equipment in science class. Be it for Chemistry or Biology. They used to be filled with coloured chemicals, held over bunsen burners and stood in their well stained wooden racks as we conducted our experiments. Nowadays, they are the new vases. I spotted them around the place and when I saw them on Urban Outfitters, that sealed the deal. The forgotten science student merged with the artsy side of me, and I went on a hunt for more floral beauty. In a tube.

Read more:
Floral Mondays :: Test Tube Flowers

Source: Sparkle Thots

International Biomedical Laboratory Science Day 15 April 2015

The theme for 2015 is: Patient Safety First

Biomedical Laboratory Scientists are one of the largest groups of health-care professionals, yet our role in medicine is poorly understood. Patients, families and even colleagues within health care have a poor understanding of the vital role Biomedical Scientists have in medicine and public health. The best person to promote our profession is a confident Biomedical Laboratory Scientist. We are the experts and understand our role in healthcare and are the best to carry our message.

Read more:
BLS Day Guide to Arrangements

Download poster:
Patient safety first

Source: IFBLS

Haemoglobin Disorders

Haemoglobin disorders or haemoglobinopathies are a group of conditions affecting human blood – more specifically an important substance or protein called haemoglobin contained in the red blood cells, hence the name haemoglobin disorders or haemoglobinopathies.

Haemoglobin is a protein that consists of the alpha (α) and beta (β) parts or chains and which are in turn produced by the α-globin genes and β-globin genes respectively. Hence the diseases caused by haemoglobin abnormality either with regards to its production or its structure are divided into α-chain diseases (or α-globin gene) diseases and β-chain (β-globin gene) diseases. These genes are found on chromosomes 16 and 11 respectively.

Read more:
Definition and General Information about Haemoglobin Disorders

Source: Thalassemia International Federation

I Love Microbiology

Microbiology is loved all over the world

Source: Facebook via Wake Tech MLT Program

Friday, April 10, 2015

Neutrophils: Between Host Defence, Immune Modulation, and Tissue Injury

Neutrophils, the most abundant human immune cells, are rapidly recruited to sites of infection, where they fulfill their life-saving antimicrobial functions. While traditionally regarded as short-lived phagocytes, recent findings on long-term survival, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, heterogeneity and plasticity, suppressive functions, and tissue injury have expanded our understanding of their diverse role in infection and inflammation. This review summarises our current understanding of neutrophils in host-pathogen interactions and disease involvement, illustrating the versatility and plasticity of the neutrophil, moving between host defence, immune modulation, and tissue damage.

Read more:
Neutrophils: Between Host Defence, Immune Modulation, and Tissue Injury

Source: PLOS

PCR Ballerina

Pipette, cry and report - goes like a ballet

Harmonization of critical result management in laboratory medicine

Unsafe medical care is a major source of disabling injuries and death throughout the world. The failure to notify, follow up, and action critical results, which signify life threatening situations, is of particular concern and may cause avoidable morbidity and mortality. International accreditation standards require pathology laboratories to have a system for the timely and reliable communication of critical results to clinical personnel responsible for patient care. In response, various practices and a number of different terminologies have been described in the literature. Increased attention to patient safety standards and multinational surveys, however, highlighted shortcomings and inefficiencies in existing communication systems. These failures and variations in practice call for clear guidance and harmonization of approaches in order to improve communications and to provide safer patient care. The objectives of this review are to create a harmonized terminology and to learn from international practices by systematically reviewing the best available evidence on existing approaches. Based on literature review findings we highlight key areas where harmonization is necessary and feasible and offer a conceptual framework and methods for designing better and more evidence-based systems for the timely notification of laboratory results that represent potential patient safety hazards.

Read more:
Harmonization of critical result management in laboratory medicine

Read more: Clinica Chimica Acta

Chocolate Organs

This newly redesigned box set of chocolate anatomy includes one of each of our regular size anatomical chocolate pieces. This assortment of 16 pieces comes as a mix of milk and dark chocolate. The box has a beautiful decorative lid to make this a unique anatomy gift for doctors, surgeons, medical student gift, graduation gift or unique chocolate gift for the occasion of your choice. Each anatomically correct chocolate rests in a paper cup then in a dark brown 16 place tray.

Read more:
Anatomically Correct Doctors Medical Organs Chocolates Gifts Boxes Columbus Ohio

Source: Visual Anatomy Limited

Thursday, April 9, 2015

Bacterial Meningitis

CASE: A 28-year-old woman was seen in the emergency department of this hospital because of headache, fever, and a rash. The patient had been well until the morning of the day of admission, when she awoke with a severe generalized headache. The headache worsened with movement, was not relieved by acetaminophen or ibuprofen, and was accompanied by nausea and one episode of nonbloody, nonbilious emesis. The patient returned to sleep and awoke again several hours later with diffuse myalgias; her temperature was 37.7°C. At that time, she also noted a rash on her abdomen, chest, and right arm; the lesions were small, red, flat, nonpruritic, and nonpainful. She described these symptoms to her father, a physician, who advised her to go to the emergency department of this hospital.

What clinical and laboratory findings are often associated with bacterial meningitis?
What microbiologic findings are characteristic of Neisseria meningitidis?

Read more:
A Woman with Headache and Fever

Source: NJEM


Art and Science. Awesome hqandmade pipette.

Read more:
Lenny the P-20 Pipetteman

Source: Devianart by craftyshanna

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